Giải bài tập Tiếng Anh 8 Unit 16: Inventions
Getting Started (Trang 147 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
Match these stages in the development of paper with the correct pictures.
(Hãy ghép các giai đoạn phát triển của giấy đúng với những bức tranh sau.)
A – b) Five thousand years ago, the Egyptians wrote on a plant called papyrus.
B – c) A Chinese official made paper from wood pulp in the year 105.
C – e) The Japanese learned how to make paper in the seventh century.
D – a) In 768, Arabs learned about papermaking from Chinese prisoners.
E – d) The first papermaking machine was invented in the late 1700s by a Frenchman.
Listen and Read (Trang 147-149 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
1. Practice the dialogue with a partner.
(Hãy luyện tập hội thoại với bạn em.)
Tim Jones, Hoa's American pen pal, is visiting a chocolate factory with his class and his teacher, Mrs. Allen. Mr. Roberts, the factory foreman, is showing them around.
(Tim Jones, người bạn quen biết qua thư từ của Hoa, đang thăm một nhà máy chế biến sô-cô-la cùng với lớp cậu ấy và cô Allen. Quản đốc Robert, đang dẫn họ đi xem quanh nhà máy.)
Hướng dẫn dịch:
Mr. Roberts: Đây là nơi bảo quản hạt ca-cao. Còn bây giờ hãy theo tôi, tôi sẽ chỉ cho các bạn xem bước đầu tiên của quá trình sản xuất.
Tim: Sam, theo bạn cái nút này để làm gì?
Sam: Mình không biết.
Mrs. Allen: Tim, Sam lại đây các em.
Mr. Roberts: Các cháu này, cái nút kia không sờ vào được đâu. Lúc này những hạt ca-cao đang được rửa sạch, đem lên cân rồi chế biến ở đây.
Mrs. Allen: Tim, em lại đây đứng gần cô. Cô đã dặn em rồi mà.
Mr. Roberts: Sau khi tách vỏ ra, hạt ca-cao được đưa vào xay và ép ra nước. Người ta thêm bơ cô-ca cùng với đường, va-ni và sữa. Sau đó hỗn hợp này được nghiền ra rồi được cán và đổ ra khuôn.
Tim: Trông ngon quá.
Sam: Chúng cháu nếm thử được không ạ?
Mr. Roberts: Được chứ. Có một ít ở trên băng chuyền kia kìa.
2. Match the half-sentences. Then write the full sentences in your exercise book.
(Hãy ghép các nửa câu lại với nhau thành câu đầy đủ rồi chép vào vở bài tập.)
a – D The beans are cleaned before being cooked.
b – C Mr. Roberts thought Tim and Sam were going to touch the button.
c – A After cooking, the cocoa beans smell like chocolate.
d – B Sugar is one of the ingredients in chocolate.
Speak (Trang 149-150 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
1. Work with a partner. Student A looks at the table next page. Student B looks at the table at the end of this unit (page 156). Ask and answer questions to fill in the missing information in your tables.
(Hãy làm việc với bạn bên cạnh. Học sinh A nhìn bảng ở trang sau. Học sinh B nhìn bảng ở cuối bài học này (trang 156). Hãy hỏi và trả lời để điền những thông tin còn thiếu vào bảng của em.)
STUDENT B (trang 156)
Hỏi và trả lời:
A: When was the bicycle invented?
B: It was invented in 1816.
A: Who was it invented by?
B: By Frederick Koenig.
A: What was his nationality?
B: He was German.
A: When was the color television invented?
B: It was invented in 1950.
A: Who was it invented by?
B: By Peter Carl Goldmark.
A: What was his nationally?
B: He was American.
Điền thông tin vào bảng:
2. Now report your findings to the teacher.
(Hãy thuật lại những điều em đã biết với thầy/cô giáo.)
– The facsmilie was invented by Alexander Bain in 1843.
– The bicycle was invented by Ferderick Koenig in 1816.
– The color television was invented by Peter Carl Goldmark in 1950.
– The helicopter was invented by Igor Sikorsky in 1939.
– The laser was invented by Gordon Gould in 1958.
– The loudspeaker was invented by C. W. Rice in 1924.
– The microphone was invented by D. E. Hughes in 1878.
– The optical fibre was invented by Karl D. Sauerbronn in 1955.
– The printing press was invented by Narinder Kapany in 1810.
– The reinforced concrete was invented by F. J. Monier in 1849.
– The sewing machine was invented by Elias Howe in 1845.
– The X-ray was invented by Wilhelm Konrad in 1895.
Listen (Trang 150-151 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
1. Listen and fill in the gaps in these sentences.
(Nghe và điền vào chỗ trống trong những câu sau đây.)
a) Papermaking is a (1) simple process.
b) The procedure is almost the (2) same as it was (3) 200 years ago.
c) The pulp vat is on the (4) left of the machine.
d) The papermaking machine has a lot of (5) rollers.
2. Listen again. Put the sentences into the correct order.
(Nghe lại lần nữa và xếp những câu sau đây theo đúng thứ tự.)
Thứ tự đúng là: c – d – a – g – f – b
c) Paper pulp was placed in the vat.
d) Paper pulp was mixed with water.
a) The pulp fibers were poured out.
g) The pulp was conveyed under the rollers.
f) The fibers were smoothed and pressed dry.
b) The paper was put on a roll.
Nội dung bài nghe:
Paper making is a simple process. The procedure is almost the same as it was 200 years ago. Look closely at this picture of an old paper making machine. On the left if the pulp vat. Paper pulp was placed in the vat and mixed with a lot of water. The water was then drained and the pulp fibers were poured out of the vat and onto a conveyor belt took them under the rollers. There were quite a lot of rollers as you can see. These rollers smoothed the fibers and pressed them dry. The finished paper was then put on a roll at the end. You can see the roll of paper at the far right of the picture.
Read (Trang 151-152 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
Read the following poem about inventions.
(Đọc bài thơ sau về các phát minh.)
Hướng dẫn dịch:
1. Hãy nhìn xem hôm nay tôi đã mua gì ở thị trấn
Những thứ mới nhất
Một lò vi ba kêu be-doom!
Một máy nướng bánh mì kêu lanh canh!
2. Máy hút bụi nổ bình bịch!
Máy sấy tóc kêu vroom!
Máy rửa bát sút phích cắm
Và kêu ầm ĩ rất to!
3. Máy điện thoại cũng tân tiến
Là cái mới nhất mà tôi đã tìm thấy
Nó có một cái chuông màu xinh xắn
Nhưng không phát ra âm thanh.
Phỏng theo một bài thơ của Martin Lawrence
1. Match the headings to the verses.
(Ghép các tiêu đề với các đoạn thơ.)
Verse 1 – b) Appliances that cook food.
Verse 2 – c) Appliances that clean or dry things.
Verse 3 – a) Instrument invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
2. Fill in each of the gaps in the sentences with one "invention" in the poem.
(Điền vào chỗ trống trong những câu dưới đây bằng một "phát minh" trong bài thơ trên.)
a) "Joan, where's the (1) vacuum? I want to clean the floor."
b) Last night I was reading in the bedroom when the (2) telephone rang. It was Ann, an old friend I didn't see for more than twelve years.
c) A (3) washing machine is a kitchen appliance that automatically washes, rinses, and dries dishes and utensils.
d) "Jane, why don't you put the meat in the (4) microwave to defrost it?"
e) "Can I borrow your (5) hairdryer? I've just washed my hair."
f) The Romans knew how to toast bread over an open five two thousand years ago. We now toast bread with a (6) toaster on the table.
Write (Trang 152-153 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
1. Fill in each gap with one of these sequence markers to describe the procedure of papermaking.
(Điền vào mỗi chỗ trống bằng từ nối để mô tả quy trình sản xuất giấy.)
first then (2) next after this finally
How Paper Is Made
(1) First, logs are cut into small chips. (2) Then they are mixed with water and acid. (3) Next they are heated and crushed to a heavy pulp. This wood pulp is also cleaned and chemically whitened. (4) After this, it is passed through rollers to be flattened. (5) Then, sheets of wet paper are produced. (6) Finally, the water is removed from the sheets which are pressed, dried and refined until the finished paper is produced.
2. Look at the sequence of pictures that describe how cacao beans are processed. Put them in the correct order.
(Nhìn tranh mô tả quá trình chế biến hạt ca-cao rồi xếp đúng thứ tự các bức tranh.)
Trình tự các câu theo đúng thứ tự các bức tranh là:
1 – d) The fruit harvest is fermented for three to nine days to kill the beans and turn them brown.
2 – a) The beans are dried in the sun.
3 – e) The beans are cleared in special machines.
4 – c) The beans are roasted to bring out the chocolate favour.
5 – b) They are shelled and ground to produce chocolate liquor.
6 – f) The liquor is made into chocolate candy or cocoa powder.
Now use the sequence markers in exercise 'write 1' to link sentences together in a paragraph.
(Bây giờ hãy dùng từ nối ở bài tập 1 để nối các câu trên lại với nhau thành một đoạn văn.)
First, the fruit harvest is fermented for three to nine days to kill the beans and turn them brown. Then, the beans are dried in the sun. Next, the beans are cleared in special machines. After this, the beans are roasted to bring out the chocolate favour. Then, they are shelled and ground to produce chocolate liquor. Finally, the liquor is made into chocolate candy or cocoa powder.
Language Focus (Trang 154-155 SGK Tiếng Anh 8)
1. Change the sentences from the active into the passive.
(Chuyển câu chủ động sang câu bị động.)
Miss Lien wrote the letter.
=> The letter was written by Miss Lien.
a) Mrs. Quyen typed the document.
=> The documents was typed (by Mrs. Quyen).
b) Mr. Nhan repaired the computer.
=> The computer was repaired (by Mr. Nhan).
c) Ba drew the picture.
=> The picture was drawn (by Ba).
d) Hoa turned off the lights.
=> The lights were turned off (by Hoa).
e) Lan baked the cake.
=> The cake was baked (by Lan).
2. Active or Passive? Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete these sentences.
(Chủ động hay Bị động? Hoàn thành câu bằng dạng đúng của động từ trong ngoặ.)
a) The grand prize was awarded to Hoa Vinh Lillage team. (award)
b) Viet Nam won two gold medals on the first day of the Games. (win)
c) Last year Mrs. Jackson ran a small business around the corner. (run)
d) The factory was run by Quang Vinh Ltd. before it was sold to a foreign firm. (run/sell)
e) Thanh Ha School was closed for two days last week due to a flood. (close)
3. Put a question for each of the underlined phrases in the sentences below.
(Đặt câu hỏi cho những từ được gạch chân trong những câu dưới đây.)
The facsimile was invented by Alexander Bain in 1843.
When was the facsimile invented?
a) The zipper was invented bv W.L. Judson in 1893.
– What was invented by W. L. Judson in 1893.
b) Maize was brought into Viet Nam by Phung Khac Khoan in the 16th century.
– What was brought into Viet Nam by Phung Khac Khoan?
– When was it invented?
c) The fountain pen was invented by Lewis Waterman in 1884.
– Who was the fountain pen invented by?
– When was it invented?
d) The ballpoint pen was invented in Hungary by brothers Lazio and Georg Biro in 1935.
– Where was the ballpoint pen was invented in 1935 by brothers Lazlo and George Biro?
e) Xerography is widely used in commerce and industry in coying machines.
– Where is Xerography widely used in commerce and industry?
4. Use the sequence markers first, then, next, after this and finally to describe how white rice is produced in the traditional way. The pictures and prompts will help you.
(Dùng các từ nối first, then, next, after this và finally mô tả quy trình sản xuất gạo trắng theo kiểu truyền thống. Những bức tranh và gợi ý sẽ giúp em.)
At first, the rice crop is harvested. Next, the rice plants are threshed. Then, the rice grains are separted from the husk and put into the mill to produce brown rice. After this, the bran is removed by the mortar. Finally, it is winnowed to produce white rice.
1. Active or passive? Write A in the brackets if the sentence is in the active voice and P if it is in the passive voice. (Trang 137 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
a. My sister was given mark 10 for her mid-term history test. (P)
b. He won the first prize in the English-speaking contest last month. (A)
c. The man was beaten black and blue. (P)
d. She fell off her bike and hurt her leg terribly. (A)
e. The burglar was caught red-handed. (P)
f. The best student of each class received a gift from the principal. (A)
g. He was sick for a week. (A)
h. My father had a terrible toothache when he was a boy. (A)
2. Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets in each of the following sentences. (Trang 137 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
a. Blaise Pascal was invented the adding machine in 1642.
b. The zipper was invented by W. L. Judson in 1893.
c. Who discovered the DNA?
d. When was tuberculosis (TB) discovered?
e. Bread is made from flour and yeast.
f. The sewing machine was invented by a French named B. Thimonnier in 1830.
g. The Englishman Michael Faraday invented the dynamo in 1831.
h. The first piston engine was developed in 1690 by the French Physicist and inventor Denis Papin.
i. The British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1982.
j. The first truly successful helicopter was designed by the German engineer Heinrich Focke.
3. Put the sentences below in the correct order to produce the instruction to cook spring-rolls or Nem. Use the sequence markers in the box to complete the instruction. (Trang 138 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
Thứ tự đúng: d – b – a – e – f – c
First, mince the pork.
Second, cut the turnips, carrots, onions into short threads of 2 or 3 cm.
Then, add spices you like.
Next, mix up everything in a pot.
After this, wrap the mixture in rice paper to make rolls double the size of a thumb.
Finally, deep-fry the rolls until they turn yellow brown.
4. Fill in each of the gaps in the passage below with one suitable word from the box. (Trang 138-139 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
5. Read the passage in Exercise 4 again and write true or false against these statements. (Trang 139 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
6. Write, from the following sets of words and phrases, complete sentences which together describe the process of making ice-cream. You can make all the necessary changes and additions. (Trang 139 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
a. First, basic ingredients are poured into a tank.
b. Then they are mixed thoroughly.
c. Next, the mixture is cooled and piped in a freezing tank.
d. Then, it is beaten until it's smooth and nuts or fruits are added.
e. After this, it is packed in containers.
f. Finally, the containers are kept in a refrigerated room until they are hard.
Now write about a process of making something you know.
Frog legs are popular in many countries. Here's how to cook frog legs.
First, put some salt and pepper on the legs.
Next, brown the legs in hot butter.
Add some cooked onion slices to the legs when they are browned.
Cook the onions and legs a little longer.
Remove the legs and onions from the pan.
Then make a sauce by warming some vinegar in the butter that's left over.
Then pour the sauce over the legs and onions.
Finally, put some parsley on top.
Taste them! They are delicious.
7. Invented or was invented? Use the correct form of the verb in brackets. (Trang 140 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
a. invented f. was invented
b. was invented g. was invented
c. was invented h. was invented
d. was invented i. invented
e. invented j. was invented
8. Read the list of the 20th century inventions and put the following events in the correct order of time. One item (d) has been done for you. (Trang 140-142 sách Bài tập Tiếng Anh 8)
5 a) The invention of the photocopier (1937)
4 b) Charles Strite's invention (1919)
8 c) The invention of audio cassettes (1962)
1 d) George Claude's invention of neon light (1902)
11 e) Microsoft's invention (1985)
3 f) The invention of instant coffee (1909)
10 g) The invention of the laser printer (1975)
9 h) The invention of the video cassette recorder (1976)
2 i) The invention of the teabag (1904)
6 j) Percy Spencer's invention (1946)
7 k) The invention of super glue (1951)